What is Tuberculosis :symptoms and Diagnosis

What is Tuberculosis :symptoms and Diagnosis :- The tuberculosis is the most important specific communicable disease in the world. The tuberculosis is an in infections disease usually caused by Myco-bacterium tuberculosis bacteria. This disease is mainly developing in all countries. The tuberculosis is the specific infection disease of primarily affecting in the lungs. (Pulmonary tuberculosis most common). It is also affect all the vital organ like intestine,, brain, bones, joint, lymph, skin etc.

What is Tuberculosis :symptoms and Diagonsis

Predisposing factors

  1. Over Crowed population
  2. malnutrition
  3. Poverty
  4. Alcoholism
  5. Drug addiction
  6. HIV Infection etc

Causative Agent

  • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
  • TB is caused by bacteria that spread from person through microscopic droplets related into the air. The can happen when someone with the untreated active from of TB coughs speaks sneeze, spits, laughs, or signs.

Tuberculosis Sign and Symptoms

  • A cough that last more than 3 weeks
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing up blood
  • Feeling tired all time
  • Night sweats
  • Chills
  • fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • loss of weight

Diagnostic of tuberculosis

  1. History and clinical examination
  2. Radio graphic features
  3. Bacteriologic evaluation
  • History and Clinical Examination

The physician include Tb in his differential diagnosis when history & symptoms are consistent with TB diagnosis. Then he will recommended appropriate diagnostic tests to prove the infection.

  • Radio-graphic features

TB create cavities visible in X-rays like this one in the patients right upper lobe. Abnormalities on chest radio-graphs may be suggestive but are never diagnostic of Tb. However, chest radio-graphs may bee used to rule out.

  • Bacteriologic evaluation

  1. Conventional diagnostic methods:- (smear , culture)
  2. Immunologic diagnosis 🙁 Tuberculin test, In gamma assay)
  3. New diagnostic methods :- (NNA, BACTEC, MGIT)

Prevention and Control

  • Early detection of cases by microscopic examination of sputum, chest X-rays, mantoux test.
  • Prevent treatment with INH or INH plus ethambutol.
  • Treatment of infected patients with suitable drugs such as rifampicin and streptomycin.