What is hypertension and types of hypertension

What is hypertension and types of hypertension :- It is chronic increase in arterial blood pressure. In general, if the diastolic pressure is more than 90 mm hg and the systolic pressure more than 250 mm Hg, the person is said to be hypertensive, though in the old-age, it is permissible as normal limit.


Hypertension may be classified, as of two types:

  1. Primary or Essential hypertension
  2. Secondary Hypertension

Primary hypertension

This means hypertension of unknown cause. it accounts for 95% of all cases and is sub-divided to the rate at which the disease progresses.

  • Chronic hypertension :- Chronic hypertension is a condition where your blood pressure (BP) is usually higher than normal, over a long time. High blood pressure in adults is when the systolic blood pressure (SBP) is higher than 139 millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
  • Accelerated hypertension :- This is a rapid and aggressive hypertension disease. Diastolic pressure in excess  of 120 mm Hg. is common. The effects are serious and quickly become apparent. example — hemorrhages into the retina, papilloedema , and progressive renal disease, leading to cardiac failure.

Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension is the condition of hypertension, secondary to some disorder. Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that’s caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system.

Hypertension sub types based on ranges:

  1. Optimal Blood Pressure – systolic < 120 mm Hg and diastolic < 80 mm Hg.
  2. Normal Blood Pressure – systolic <130 mm Hg and diastolic <85 mm Hg.
  3. High-Normal Blood Pressure – systolic 130-139 mm Hg or diastolic 85-89 mm Hg.
  4. Hypertension stage 1 – systolic 140-159 mm Hg or diastolic < mm Hg
  5. Hypertension stage 2 – systolic 160-179 mm Hg or diastolic 90-99 mm Hg.
  6. Hypertension stage 3 – systolic >=180 mm Hg or diastolic >=110 mm Hg.
  7. Isolated systolic hypertension(ISH) – high systolic pressure only.

Symptoms of Hypertension

  1. Headache
  2. Morning Headache
  3. Tinnitus
  4. Dizziness
  5. Confusion
  6. Papilloedema
  7. High blood pressure
  8. Fatigue
  9. headaches
  10. shortness of breath
  11. nosebleeds
  12. flushing
  13. chest pain
  14. visual changes
  15. blood in the urine
  16. and other

Treatment of hypertension

A number of factors help your doctor determine the best treatment option for you. These factors include which type of hypertension you have and what causes have been identified.

Primary hypertension treatment options

If your doctor diagnoses you with primary hypertension, lifestyle changes may help reduce your high blood pressure. If lifestyle changes alone aren’t enough, or if they stop being effective, your doctor may prescribe medication.

Secondary hypertension treatment options

If your doctor discovers an underlying issue causing your hypertension, treatment will focus on that other condition. For example, if a medicine you’ve started taking is causing increased blood pressure, your doctor will try other medicines that don’t have this side effect.

Sometimes, hypertension is persistent despite treatment for the underlying cause. In this case, your doctor may work with you to develop lifestyle changes and prescribe medications to help reduce your blood pressure.

Treatment plans for hypertension often evolve. What worked at first may become less useful over time. Your doctor will continue to work with you to refine your treatment.