Vitamins and classification of vitamins

Vitamins and classification of vitamins :- The word vitamin come from the Latin word vita means life. Vitamin are organic component in food that are needed in very small amount for growth and for maintaining good health. Everybody must eat a certain amount of Vitamin to stay healthy. Vitamins are chemical found in very small amount in many different foods.

Vitamins : Characteristics and function of vitamins
Vitamins : Characteristics and function of vitamins

Classification of Vitamins

on the basis of their solubility vitamins are mainly 2 types:

  1. Fat soluble Vitamins
  2. Water soluble Vitamins

Fat soluble Vitamins

Vitamin that dissolve in fat Because fat is easily stored on our body, fat soluble vitamins can be stored within our fat. This means they can accumulate and be saved for later use. The fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K.

Water soluble Vitamins

Vitamins that dissolve in water because our body is a watery environment these vitamins can move through our body pretty easily and they can also be flushed out by the kidneys. Water soluble vitamin include the B-Complex vitamin and vitamin-C. There are eight B-Vitamins, including vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12






Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that include retonol, retinal, retinoic acid and several pro-vitamin. a carotenols, among which beta-carotene is the most important. Its active form is present only in animal tissue.

Requirement

  • 5000 IU Daily

Source

  • Carrots, meat, eggs,cheese, papaya, fish, mangoes, sweet potato, squash, broccoli, peppers, apricots, peaches, melon, avocado.

Deficiency

  • Night Blindness, retarded growth etc.

Function

  • Vitamin A plays a role in a variety of function throughout the body such as,
  1. Vision
  2. Gene Transcription
  3. Immune function
  4. Embryonic development and reproduction
  5. Bone metabolism
  6. Hematopoiesis
  7. Skin and cellular health
  8. Antioxidant activity.






Vitamin D

Vitamin D refers to  a group of fat soluble secosteroids (a type of a steroid with a broken ring) found in livere and fish oil, or obtained by irradiating pro-vitamin D with ultraviolet light and are responsible for enhancing intestinal; absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc. it is also called sunshine vitamin. It is available in @ forms

  1. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)
  2. Calciferol D2

Requirement

  • 1000 IU Daily

Source

  • Cheese
  • margarine
  • Butter
  • Fortified milk
  • Healthy Cereals
  • Fatty Fish

Deficiency

  • Ricket in children
  • Osteomalasia in adults

Function

  1. In the intestine it promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
  2. It is necessary for bone and teeth formation
  3. It is also necessary for normal growth
  4. Blood pressure regulation






Vitamin E

Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that include  both tocopherds and tocotrienols. They are naturally occuring anti-oxidant. It is also called anti-aging factor. The word tocopherol is derived from the word toco meaning child birth and pheros meaning to bear. It is yellow oily liquid freely soluble in fat solvent. Tocopherol  α, β, γ, δ have been obtained from the natural sources.

Requirement

  • 15 to 30 mg/day.

Sources

  • Almonds
  • Mustard gross
  • Dried apeicods
  • Pine nuts
  • Papaya
  • Red chills powder
  • Spinach
  • Sunflower seeds
  • Soyabeen oil
  • Rice germ oil

Deficiency

  • Abortion and Sterility in animal

Function

  1. It is necessary for reproduction
  2. It is necessary for metabolism
  3. It protect Vit A from






Vitamin K

Vitamin K refers to a group of structurally similar fat soluble vitamins the human body needs for complete synthesis of certain protein that are required for blood coagulation and also certain protein that the body uses to manipulate binding ti calcium in bone and other tissues.

vitamin k is naturally produced by the bacteria in the intestine. it is essential for production of type of protein called prothrombin & other factor involve in blood clotting mechanism. hence it is known as anti-hemorrhagic vitamin.

Vitamin K includes two natural Vitamin

  1. Vitamin K1(Phylloquinone)
  2. Vitamin K2 (Menaquinones)

Requirement

  • 0.03 mg/kg Daily

Sources

  • Spinach
  • Cow’s milk
  • green leaf vegetable

Deficiency

  • Increased bleeding due to defective clotting mechanism.

Function

  1. Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of clotting factors especially prothrombin.