Nutritional Requirement for plant tissue culture 

Nutritional Requirement for plant tissue culture :- The plant cell and tissue require a proper nutrient medium for their growth and development. The nutrient medium contains both major and minor nutrients to assist the growing cell or tissue. Each element offers certain physiological control over the growing cells or tissue in the medium.

The Deficiency of there element cause the deficiency symptoms on the growing tissue. The importance of various essential element are discuses below.

Inorganic Nutrients

  1. Macro Nutrients
  2. Micro Nutrients

Macro Nutrient

The Macro nutrient include six major element.

  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Sulphur

Present as salt that constitute the various defined media.

Function Of Macro Nutrients

Nitrogen Component of proteins, nucleic acids and some co-enzymes
Potassium Regulates osmotic potential, principal inorganic cation
Calcium Cell wall synthesis, membrane function, cell signaling
Magnesium Enzyme cofactor, component of chlorophyll
Phosphorus Component of nucleic acid, energy transfer.
Sulphur Component of some amino acid and some cofactor.

Micro Nutrient

The inorganic element required in small quanties bbut essential for proper growth of the plant cell or for tissue are ,Borom (B), Copper (Cu), Iron(fe) , maganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn),  and molydenum (Mo).

Function Of Micro Nutrients

Copper Enzyme co-factor , electron transfer factor
Zinc Enzyme co-factor , chlorophyll biosynthesis
Molybdenum Enzyme co-factor , component of nitrate reductase
Chlorine Required for photosynthesis
Iron Electron transfer as a component of cytochromes
Manganese Enzyme co-factor

Organic Nutrients

  1. Amino Acids
  2. Carbon Source
  3. Vitamins
  4. Plant Growth Regulation
  5. Organic Substance

Amino Acids

Amino acid are added for substitution for augmentation of the nitrogen supply. If is noted that theonine, glycine and valine reduce aminoium utilisation by inactiving glumate synthase located in chloroplasts and cytoplasm.

Vitamins

  • Plant synthesis required vitamin
  • Essential for many biochemical reaction
  • Cultured cell are capable to produce vitamins at some level
  • They require an exogenous supply vitamin at some level
  • They require an exogenous supply of different vitamin fir optimum growth
  • Most Usable Vitamin are thiamine pyridoxine nicotinic acid vitamin B complex.

Plant Growth Regulation

The growth and the development of higher plant tissue in Vitro is controlled by Endogenous plant growth regulators. There are 5 known groups of these growth regulators namely auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, unsaturated hydrocarbon gases and growth inhibitor. The previous two group are of great importance for culture media preparation while the letter to group are represented by ethylene and abscisic acid

Organic Substance

In order to stimulate the growth of the cell organic supplements are sometimes added to the medium. The supplement include pattern yeast extracts, malt extract and coconut milk. Coconut milk is also known as a supplier of growth regulators. extract malt extract and coconut milk coconut milk is also known as a supplier of growth regulator.