What is Neurons ?

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Neurons are the structure and function units of nervous system which are derived form embryonic ectoderm. Each neuron is made of a round or oval cell body known as cyton or perikaryon form which arise one or many processes. These processes are of two type– Dendrites and Axons.

The cell body of neuron contains a nucleus, Golgibody , endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, neurofibrils and Nissl’s granules. Nissl’s granules are made as a result of the aggregation of the cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum in which ribosome particles are present in between the cisternae. Such granules are also found in dendrites but are absent in axons. Nissl’s granules are related with protein synthesis. Centrosome disappears during embryonic development in never cells hence never cells always remain in interphase and never divide.

Dendrites carry the impulses toward the cyton whereas axons transmit the impulses away form the cyton. Each neuron has one or more dendrites but it contains only one axon. Axon is branched at its terminal end. Such branching are know as telondendria which get swollen at the ends to become knobbed.such knobbed ends are known as button. The place of origin of axon on the cyton is known as axon hillock.

The flask shaped neurons found in the cerebellum of the brain are known as purkinje cells.