Explain The Pancreas In Biology

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Pancreas is a pinkish white flat mixed gland situated behind stomach in the abdominal cavity. In an adult human being it measures 20-25 cm in length and weight about 65-100 gram. It means pancreas is of endodermal organ. Its 99% portion is formed of numerous hollow acini consisting of digestive enzyme secreting exocrine cells. These acini are suspended in connective tissues. These small masses of cells measuring about 0.1 to 0.2 mm masses diameter are called islets of langerhans in honour of their discoverer paul langerhans (1869). There are many types of endocrine cells principal among then are alpha cell(α or A cell),beta cell( β or B cell), delta cell (δ or c cell) F cell etc.

Function of hormones:-

Insulin hormone increases the permeability of cell membranes to glucose and greatly accelerates the passage of glucose into cells from the inter cellular  fluid. As brain cells and red blood corpuscles are excessively permeable to glucose even in normal condition hence these cells are not affected by insulin increase BMR of these cell synthesis of glycogen from glucose (Glycogenesis) in liver.


Stimulate synthesis of glucose from fatty aid and amino acid (Gluconeogenesis) breakdown of glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) in liver cells and breakdown of fats in adipose tissues (lipolysis). In other word glucagon stimulates catabolism.


somatostatin or growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) inhibits the secretion of both glucagon and insulin. In addition it increase the duration of digestion absorption and assimilation of food so as to increase utilization time of the food. This hormone also act as neurotransmitter in the brain.