Describe The Human Kidney

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Human kidney:-

Kidneys are situated below the liver and behind the peritonium of abdominal cavity on both the sides of the vertebral column. Due to the larger space begin occupied by the liver in right side, The right kidney is situated slightly at a lower level as compared to the left kidney. Each kidney is surrounded by three layers of tissues the innermost layer begin made of fibrous substance called renal capsule, the middle layer made of fatty substance known as adipose capsule and the outermost layer made of connective tissue called renal fascia.

 human kidney

Kidney are deep red coloured bean shaped structure of the dimension of 11 cm×6cm×3cm (length, width, thickness). The upper and lower ends of the kidney are called as the superior and inferior poles. An adrenal gland is situated on the superior pole of each kidney. The lateral portions of each kidney facing outwards convex whereas the portions facing the vertebral column are concave . a depression present on the concave surface is known as hilum through which the entry exit of renal artery, renal vein, lymph vessels, nerves and ureter occur.

Internal structure of kidney:-

In the longitudinal section renal tissues are found to be differentiated into two distinct regions . The outer narrow red coloured region (part) is called cortex whereas the inner (facing toward the centre) boroader pale yellow coloured region is called medulla. Medulla is divided into 8 to 18 conical lobes which are know as pyramids. The broad basal portion of each pyramid faces towards the cotex whereas the narrower portion protrudes in side in the renal sinus and is know as renal papilla.

Each Kidney contain about one million urine forming long slender and coiled tubular structure known as renal tubules or nephron . Nephron are the structure and funcation unit of kidney. kidney tissues do not have regeneration capacity hence the number of nephrons present during embryonal development remain persistent throughout the life. During growth period the nephron grow yet their number remainst constant . There is no replacement of the damaged nephrons.

internal structure of human kidney