Define the Nose? Write the funcation of nose.

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Nose:-

Nose is a Hollow organ consisting of bone, Cartilage, muscles and connective tissues. The inner cavity of nose is know as nasal cavity which is divided into two left and right nasal passages by a vertical cartilaginous nasal septum. These nasal passages open outward through two oval apertures. These apertures are known as anterior or external nares or nostrils. Similarly, these nasal passages open outward through two oval apertures. These apertures are know as anterior or external nares or nostril . Similarly these nasal passages open posteriorly into nasopharynx part of the pharynx near glottis. These apertures are known as posterior or internal nares.

Each nasal passage has been divided into three region know as vestibule, respiratory and olfactory region.

Vestibule region:-

The smaller region present just behind the external nares is known as vestibule. This region of nose is lined by stratified squamous epithelium on which stiff hairs are present which prohibit the entry of dust particles coming along with inspired air.

Respiratory region:-

On the lateral walls of nasal cavity three curved bony plates are found on each side which are know as superior, Middle and inferior concha. The superior and middle conchae are the elavations of ethmoid bone whereas the inferior conchae is itself a bone known as turbinate bone. In this way these conchae divide each nasal passage into superior, Middle and inferior air meatuses and thereby increase the surface area of mucous membrane as a result of which the air passing the passage become more hot and moist.

Olfactory region:-

Olfactory region is spreaded over the area from the middle of the roof of nasal cavity to 8-10 mm downward on nasal septum and on the surface of superior concha. olfactory region is lined by olfactory epithelium or schneiderian membrane on which organs of sense of small are situated. olfactory organ situated in the schneiderian membrane consists of three types of cells- Receptor cells, Sustentacular or supporting cells and basal cells. Sensory receptor cells receive olfactory sensations and are formed by the modification of bipolar neurons.

Define the Nose? Write the funcation of nose
Define the nose? write the funcation of nose

Funcation of nose:-

  1. The nasal passage inside the nose is convoluted so that the temperature of inspired air becomes equal to the body temperature.
  2. The secretion of mucous in the nasal passage makes the air moist and dust particles of harmful substance and the microbes coming along with inhaled air stick to the mucous and finally get entangled in the hairs of the vestibule.
  3. The olfactory region of nose receives olfactory stimuli and transmit then to olfactory centres situated in the brain.

Disease of the Nose:-

Epistaxis:-

The bleeding through the nose is known as epistaxis. It is actually not a disease itself but it is a symptom of a localised or systemic disorder. The main causes of epistaxis involve acute sinusitis, rhinitis, Hypertension, malignant growth of nose and sinises etc.

Infection of paranasal sinuses:-

The infection of paranasal sinuses occurs through the nasal cavity. This disease occurs normally as a result of persistent cold, influenza, Pnueomonia, Typhoid etc, continuous nasal flow occurs in this disease and due to blockage of ostium acute headache occurs. Heasache in some patients starts usually in the morning and lasts till afternoon. It is commonly known as vacuum headache.