Cholera : symptoms transmission and treatment

Cholera : symptoms transmission and treatment:- Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal illness caused by infections of the intestine with the bacteria vibrio cholerae.

Cholera : symptoms transmission and treatment
Cholera : symptoms transmission and treatment

Cholera was prevalent in the 1800s, but due to proper treatment of sewage and drinking water and become rare in developed country. Cholera is a fecal disease meaning that it spreads when the face of an infected person come into contact with food or water. Incidence 1 in 100,000 world wide.

Over 1 million cases and nearly 10,000 fatalities.

Vibrio Cholerae

  • Gram Negative
  • Types of Gammaproteobacteria
  • Distinguishing factors : Oxidise positive, motile via polar flagellum and both respiratory and fermentative metabolism.
  • Organism can multiply freely in water.

Signs and symptoms

  • Profuse watery diarrhea
  • Stomach pain
  • Leg cramps
  • Mild fever
  • Vomiting
  • Sunken eyes and cheeks
  • Dry mucous membrane
  • Decreased urinary output

Mode of transmission

  • A person may get Cholera by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with the Cholera bacteria.
  • The source of the contamination usually the feaces of the an infected person or water contaminated with sewage.

Treatment

  • Patient can be treatment with oral rehydration solution or intake of liquids in large amount.
  • Severe cases also require intravenous fluids.

Control of Cholera

It is non considered that the best way to control cholera is develop and implement a national programme for the control of all diarrhoeal disease because of similarities in the epidermal, pathophysiology treatment and control of Cholera and other acute diarrhoeal disease. The following account is based on the “guidelines for Cholera control” proposed by the WHO

  1. Verification of the diagnosis
  2. Notification
  3. Early case finding
  4. Establishment of treatment centres
  5. Rehydration therapy
  6. Adjuncts to therapy
  7. Epidemiological investigation
  8. Sanitation measures
  9. Chemoprophylaxis
  10. Vaccination
  11. Health education

Prevention

  • Education on hygienic practices
  • Provision of safe uncontaminated water to the population.
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis to house hold cantacts
  • Vaccination against cholera.