Carbohydrates : function source and Classification
Carbohydrates : function source and Classification :- Carbohydrates are the most abundant of all the organic compound in nature The Carbohydrates composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The word Carbohydrates means hydrates of carbon. Defined as polyhydroxy-aldehydes or ketones or composed which produce tem on hydrolysis.
Function of Carbohydrates
- they are the main constituent of diet.
- They are the main source of energy.
- They are essential for the oxidation of fats.
Source of Carbohydrates
Sugar :- They are the simplest form of Carbohydrates
Starch:- It is polysaccharides. It form the basic human diet
Cellulose :- It is the indigetible constituents of carbohydrates.
Classification of Carbohydrates
- Monosaccharides – simple sugar
- Disaccharides – sucrose, maltose
- Oligosaccharides – Reffinose, stachyose
- Polysaccharides – Starch , glycogen.
monosaccharide are the simple sugar or compounds which posses a free aldehyde (CHO) or ketone (C=O) group and two or more hydroxyl (OH) groups.
They are the simplest sugars and cannot be hydrolyzed further into smaller unit. Monosaccharide contain a single carbon chain and are classified carbon atoms they possoes and as Aldo’s or ketoses depending upon their groups.
The disaccharides are sugar composed of two monosaccharide Residue linked by a glycosidic bond. The disaccharide of physiological importance are as follow.
Trisaccharide : Raffinose ( Galactose+Galactose+fructose)
Tetrasaccharide : stachyose (2Galactose+Glucose+fructose)
Pentasaccharide : Verbascose (3Galactose+glucose+fructose)
Hexasaccharide : Ajugose ( 4 Galactose+Glucose+fructose)
Homoglycons ( starch, cellulose, glycogen, sections or insulin)
Hetroglycans ( Mucopolysaccharides)
- Polymer ( MW form 200000)
- White and amorphous products ( glassy)
- Not sweet
- Not reducing
- Form colloidal solution or suspension