Asthma : types cause and treatment

Asthma : types cause and treatment : – Asthma is a chronic disease in which the patient has difficulty in breathing. Asthma is an allergic disorder of smooth muscles of bronchus and there is the construction of bronchus and the mucous membrane.

Asthma : types cause and treatment.
Asthma : types cause and treatment.

Bronchial asthma is a condition associated with episodes of coughing dyspnoea and wheezing due to obstruction to the flow of air through narrowed bronchi.

The extract cause of asthma is unknown but it is primarily an inflammatory condition. Allergy is one of the main causes but other trigger factor include infection, irritants pollution, exposure cold air and physichogenics.

Types of Asthma

  1. Extrinsic asthma
  2. Intrinsic asthma

Extrinsic asthma

This type of asthma is mainly due to the extrinsic factor, the individual who have hypersensitivity to the external allergants like pollen, dust, cigarette, smoking etc. It is also include hypertrophy of bronchi lumens.

Intrinsic Asthma

It is mainly due to the infections of respiratory tract individuals who have such type of asthma may be subject to life threatening attack of acute respiratory distress which may precipitate by upper respiratory infection.

Causes of asthma

The cause of divided by two factors

1. Environment factors

  • Air pollutants
  • Smoking
  • Dust
  • Pets
  • Chemical and other

2. Genetic factors

  • Family history
  • Certain genes

Symptoms of Asthma

  • Cough
  • Wheezing
  • Cheat tightness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid breathing
  • Triedness

Pharmacological basis of treatment

  • Bronchial asthma is a bronchial hypersensitivity disorder characterized by variable dyspnoea due to widespread airway obstruction which is reversible spontaneously or as a result of treatment.
  • In addition most of asthmatics show increased bronchial irritability in response to changes in atmospheric condition and other Trigger factor include allergens.

Prophylaxis

The incident and severity of attack may be reduced by regular administration of

  • Disodium cromoglycate which interfers with allergic response by inhibiting the release of mediators from the most cells
  • Bronchodilator drug like the sympathomimetics alone ephedrine orally, orciprenaline orally or by aerosol or salbutamol orally or by aerosol.
  • Corticosteroids like prednisolone may be administered orally, but there is a risk of addreno cortical suppression.

Treatment of asthma

Acute Attack

  • Adrenaline 0.2 0.5 mm Subcutaneously is the initial drug of choice may be repeated every 1 to 2 hours.
  • Aminophylline 0.25 gram in 10 to 20 ml of saline slowly intravenously may be used, if adrenaline is ineffective.
  • Nebulized drug like Isoetharine, adrenaline, isoprenaline or salbutamol may be given.
  • Corticosteroids : – Sodium succinate 100 to 200 mg intravenously may be effective.
  • Other drugs: Methtylxanthines may be tried.

Chronic asthma

Whenever possible the office trailer factors should be avoided the mental treatment of chronic asthma.

Steroid therapy in asthma

Systemic steroid therapy is resorted to in asthma under the following two situations.

  • Severe chronic asthma
  • Acute asthma exacerbation.